Osteoarthritis/arthrosis is a degenerative joint disease; affecting articulations, especially weight-bearing joints which are subjected to maximum 'wear and tear', it is the result of a variety of patterns of joint failure. It can be characterized by both degenerations of articular cartilage and simultaneous proliferation of new bones, cartilage, and connective tissue.


AGE: There is a steady rise in degenerative changes in joints from the age of 30. By age of 65, 85% of people have some radiographic evidence of Osteoarthritis although only 25% may have symptoms.

SEX: More generalized and more severe in older women.

GENETIC: It is genetically linked. Obesity and body mass index are particularly associated with knee Osteoarthritis. Cold and damp climates are also associated with more symptoms.

AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS: (Cause and Disease Process)

PRIMARY OSTEOARTHRITIS: If cause is unknown.

SECONDRY OSTEOARTHRITIS: When degenerative joint changes occur in response to a recognizable local/systemic factor.


  • Synovial fluid is viscous and has a low cell count.
  • Symptoms are gradual in onset.
  • Pain is at first intermittent and aching and is provoked by the use of the joint. And relieved by rest.
  • As disease progresses movement of the joint becomes increasingly limited initially as a result of pain and muscular spasm but later because of capsular fibrosis, osteophyte formation and remodeling of bone.
  • There may be repeated effusions into joints especially after minor twists/injuries. Crepitus may be felt/even heard.
  • Associated muscle wasting is an important factor in the progress of the disease.

  • Blood count and ESR are characteristically normal.
  • Synovial fluid is viscous and has a low cell count.
  • Radiological specific features
  • Joint space narrowing seen due to cartilage destruction.
  • Joint space remodeling follows destruction of the cartilage. The joint alignment is altered with formation of new bone and cartilage in the non stressed area resulting in peripheral osteophytosis.
  • Cyst or geode formation may be seen along with subchondral sclerosis.
  • Detached osteophytes / ossification of cartilaginous debris form loose bodies.

  • Treatment is directed towards relieving symptoms, maintaining and improving joint function and minimizing handicap.
  • For overweight weight reduction will benefit.
  • Muscle exercises to increase muscle tone and aerobic fitness benefit pain reduction and function even in the orderly.
  • Aids such as splints, walking sticks etc can help in reducing the condition in weight bearing joints and also in post-surgerical rehabilitation.
  • Occupational therapy services.

    A. Grading of disease / symptoms
  • Acute
  • Sub acute
  • Chronic
  • Acute exacerbation of chronic disease
  • Proper use of anti miasmatic remedies
  • Only under the guidance of qualified homoeopath
  • B. Grading of disease / symptoms
  • Serous Membrane
  • Ligaments
  • Circulation - Artery or venous
  • Nerves
  • Bones and Articular surface

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